What is Kratom

Natural kratom comes from the mitragyna speciose, a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia whose leaves have been used for centuries as an herbal supplement in traditional medicines.

Kratom is not a drug. Kratom is not an opiate. Kratom is not a synthetic substance. Naturally occurring Kratom is a safe herbal supplement that behaves as a partial mu-opioid receptor agonist and is used for pain management, energy, even depression and anxiety that are common among Americans. Kratom contains no opiates, but it does bind to the same receptor sites in the brain. Chocolate, coffee, exercise and even human breast milk hit these receptor sites in a similar fashion.

According to a comprehensive analysis by Dr. Jack Henningfield, Ph.D, kratom’s potential for abuse and dependence is no greater than such widely used and unscheduled substances as “nutmeg, hops, St. John’s Wort, chamomile, guarana, and kola nut”.

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Resources

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AKA Policy Report, December 2018

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Kratom by the Numbers

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Kratom Eight Factor Analysis

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Scientists Response to FDA Kratom 8 FA

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Kratom Fact Sheet


Kratom Potential Therapy | Dr. Christopher McCurdy

Review of Deaths in Colorado Attributed to Kratom | The New England Journal of Medicine

Abuse Liability and Therapeutic Potential of the Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) Alkaloids Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine | Addiction Biology

Kratom Scientist Letter to Congressional Leadership

Abuse Liability of Mitragynine Assessed with a Self-Administration Procedure in Rats | Psychopharmacology

Synthetic and Receptor Signaling Explorations of the Mitragyna Alkaloids: Mitragynine as an Atypical Molecular Framework for Opioid Receptor Modulators | Journal Of The American Chemical Society

Pharmacokinetics of Mitragynine in Man | Drug Design, Development and Therapy

Alkaloids Identified in Mitragyna Speciosa, Kratom | Kratom Science

Kratom and Other Mitragynines: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Opiods from a Non-Opium Source | (Full Book), CRC Press

An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Kratom | Journal of Dietary Supplements

Total Synthesis of (-)-Mitragynine and Analogues | , Isabel Kerschgens

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous, Methanolic and Alkaloid Extracts from Mitragyna Speciosa (Rubiaceae Family) Leaves | Molecules

Computational Study on the Conformations of Mitragynine and Mitragynaline | National Insitute of Health

Self-Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal Using Kratom (Mitragynia Speciosa Korth) | National Institute of Health

List of Studies | Dr. Christopher McCurdy

Acute Toxicity Study of Standardized Mitragyna speciosa Korth Aqueous Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats | Journal of Plant Studies

Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna Speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay | Molecules

Pharmacological Studies on 7-Hydroxymitragynine, Isolated from the Thai Herbal Medicine Mitragyna speciosa: Discovery of an Orally Active Opioid Analgesic | , Kenjiro Matsumoto

In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of Three Different Mitragyna speciosa Korth Leaf Extracts on Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes—Glutathione Transferases (GSTs) | Molecules

The Neuromuscular Blockade Produced by Pure Alkaloid, Mitragynine and Methanol Extract of Kratom Leaves (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) | Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Genes Induced by High Concentration of Salicylic Acid in Mitragyna Speciosa) | Australian Journal of Crop Science